Spring Festival: Why do we celebrate it on the first day of the first lunar month?
Author: Yang Baobao bid farewell to the old year and usher in the new, shou Sui reunion.Spring Festival is the most important traditional festival for Chinese people.During the Spring Festival, people rush back to their hometown from all over the country, forming the biggest temporary migration of population every year: Chunyun.Even if because of the epidemic, many people can not go home, paste Spring Festival couplets, sprinkling dust, watching the Spring Festival Gala, eating dumplings is also indispensable steps.”What we now call the Spring Festival, the traditional Custom of the Year, has been recorded in literature for at least 3,000 years.Who can be the symbol of Chinese New Year culture?”Tian Zhaoyuan, a professor at East China Normal University, has put forward a figure whom most people know little about: Liu Hong, an astronomer at Langzhong in Sichuan province during the Han Dynasty.Although liu Hong is not well-known among the general public, he is also a figure who has left a deep mark in history.He was the compiler of taichu Calendar, a national calendar introduced during the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty.Tian zhaoyuan said that in the Book of Songs, China’s first collection of poetry, there are many records about nian customs.”Bin Wind” Of July describes the family gathering and family cleaning and organizing for the holiday as follows: “The chimney smokes mice and crowded the 墐 house.My wife, who is in contempt, is admitted to this room for changing her age.””To change the year” means to celebrate the New Year, and to bid farewell to the old year and usher in the new. Cleaning is a basic tradition that was laid down 3,000 years ago.Smoke removal rat infestation, repair doors and Windows to prevent cold, a clean house, a family: “I”, wife, son as the main home for the New Year.This is the old family reunion.”We also found that there was a public life of Chinese New Year at that time.”The Book of July writes: “For the bolts of wine, they kill the lamb.Si said he was longevous!”This is a public annual ritual.Festival kill sheep wine, we came to the “hall”, that is, a public temple, raised the glass, common blessing: longevity!Bless the village and the family of the elderly health and longevity, wish a happy life together.”Three thousand years ago, such scenes were a combination of family reunion and public blessing ceremonies.So in China, the early Spring Festival is part of public cultural life.”Tian zhaoyuan said.But before emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty issued the Tai Chu Calendar, the time of “Guo Nian” was not determined.”In early China, the time of the Spring Festival was not the same in one dynasty and another dynasty, that is, the beginning of the year was not the same, so the time of the Spring Festival was different.”Tian Zhaoyuan introduced, for example: “Xia Zhengjian Yin, Yin Zhengjian Chou, Zhou Zhengjian Zi.”It means: the first year of the Xia dynasty is Yin Month that is January, the first year of the Yin Dynasty is Chou month that is December, the first year of the Zhou Dynasty is Ziyue that is November.The change of dynasty and change of time expression is beneficial to the establishment of dynasty personality, but it also hinders the identification of time in the whole Chinese culture.”The so-called Spring Festival, refers to the end of the last year and the beginning of the New Year, its basic meaning is to rid the old and usher in the new.This relates to the Chinese understanding of the natural succession cycle, that is, the Spring Festival as a New Year is based on the calendar.”You Hongxia, an assistant researcher at the Institute of Folklore, School of Social Development, East China Normal University.Liu Che, emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, and liu Hong, the astronomer, were the people who really defined “January as the Spring Festival” in the calendar, and directly linked “welcoming the New Year” with “welcoming the spring” and legally unified it.Prior to the modification of the calendar by Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the calendar has lasted for more than one hundred years since the Qin Dynasty converted to Zhuanxu calendar.Zhuanxu calendar in October for the beginning of the year, “the beginning of the year” in the face of winter, can not reflect the New Year from the time of the new situation, the whole calendar and the agricultural production of China more than inconsistent.Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty (110 BC – 105 BC), in order to reform the calendar, the recruitment of astronomers.Recommended by qiao Long, a fellow countryman, People from Langzhong county (now Langzhong, Sichuan province) rushed to the capital, Chang ‘an.He and Tang du cooperation, elaborate too chu calendar.The Calendar was superior to the other 17 calendars proposed at that time, which was adopted by Emperor Wudi of han Dynasty and officially implemented in 104 BC, and set this year as the first year of the Calendar.The first month of the lunar New Year is the first month of the New Year. The first day of the lunar New Year is the first day of the year, so that the country’s historical and political year and the year of people’s production and life are coordinated and unified, and the 24 solar terms are included in the calendar.Since then, more than 2,000 years have passed since then, and the Chinese people’s Celebration of the Spring Festival has not changed.”Therefore, it can be inferred that the Unified Chinese New Year began with the implementation of the Lunar Calendar.Therefore, it is natural that Liu Hong, the creator of the lunar calendar, becomes the central figure of the Spring Festival.””You hongxia said.China is a vast country, and while it is cold in the north, it is relatively warm in the south. It is difficult to make a calendar for the whole country.”The ‘Tai Chu Calendar’ is a relatively reasonable lunar calendar that also takes into account the 24 solar terms in the solar calendar.According to the ‘Taichu Calendar’, the Spring Festival in the lunar calendar and the Start of Spring in the solar calendar coincide almost around the beginning of the year, and the New Year and the Start of Spring are basically together, which meets the needs of the Chinese people.”That’s why Liu Hong and Emperor Wudi are now considered important in Spring Festival culture, Mr. Tian said.Can Liu Hong represent Chinese Spring Festival culture?”Based on the current research, Liu Hong should be the best choice.”Tian zhaoyuan said.Liu Hong is an outstanding representative of Chinese astronomical scientists, whose taichu Calendar has made a unique contribution to the world astronomy history.In recognition of his contributions to world science, on September 16, 2004, with the approval of the International Astronomical Union Nomination Committee for Small Celestial Bodies, an asteroid with the international permanent number 16757 was officially named “Xiaoxi Hong” in Beijing. Therefore, Xiaoxi Hong is a world-class scientist.You Hongxia once visited Langzhong In Sichuan province to investigate the culture of “Nian Grandpa”.Langzhong’s academic research on Liu Hong’s contribution to the calendar and the Spring Festival began in the 1980s in Sichuan.Langzhong was named “The Hometown of Chinese Spring Festival Culture” by the Chinese Folk Literature and Art Association in 2010, and langzhong began to try to create the Theme activities of Falling Hong during the Spring Festival.”Many important festivals have a representative figure, such as Qu Yuan on the Dragon Boat Festival, Jie Zitui on the Cold Food Festival and Chang ‘e on the Mid-Autumn Festival.But the Spring Festival, the most important traditional festival in China, has no representative figure.”Zhao-yuan tian thinks, if you want to be able to select a true representative of “symbol” characters, falling Hong is valuable, “yuan guo shoujin compiled” in shoushi calendar, calendar for minor adjustments, form we now use the lunar calendar, the basic framework, but the calendar is falling Hong “the beginning calendar” is set.”Tian zhaoyuan said that the Western Christmas has a series of cultural symbols represented by “Santa Claus”, such as moose sleigh, socks, gifts and so on, which are very popular with children. It not only increases the fun of the festival, successfully spreads Christmas culture, but also promotes a series of related holiday consumption.It is also meaningful to establish “Nian Grandpa” Liu Hong as a symbol for the Spring Festival. “As the biggest folk festival in China, it is regrettable that there are no representatives of the Spring Festival.It is in line with our creative spirit to use a calendar expert or scientist as the spokesman of the New Year culture.I hope that in the future, ‘Nian Grandpa’ can be integrated with various symbolic elements of Chinese New Year culture in the continuous recognition, and become a symbol representative of Chinese New Year culture.”Source: Thepaper.cn