The Great Qin Empire committed suicide
As a matter of fact, the Great Wall and the straight Road accounted for a small proportion of the deaths in the Qin Dynasty. There is a more important reason that we have not paid attention to, that is, the First Emperor of The Qin Dynasty launched an army against Baiyue.According to “huai south son” records, qin shihuang thirty-three years (214 BC), the first emperor to his lieutenant tu in lingnan, led five hundred thousand troops mulling five road attack has defeated the west ou hundreds more (zhejiang), the author hundreds more (fujian) and the south Vietnamese people hundreds more (guangdong), but when and west ou people (hundreds more of guangxi and Vietnam) when we have a problem,According to “Huainan Ziren Xun” records, this battle qin army fought very hard, for three years did not remove armor, not relax crossbow.At first, they won a small victory and killed yi Xu Song, the leader of the Xi ‘ou people. However, the people of Xi ‘ou played a game of hide-and-seek with the Qin army. They hid themselves in the remote mountains and forests and attacked the Qin army with their geographical position.Finally one night, the Qin army was ambushed by xi ‘ou people, defeated, master Tu Sui died, Qin soldiers fu corpse bloodshed sacrifice hundreds of thousands of people.Now the question came. Meng Tian only had 300,000 yuan to defeat the mighty Huns, and Tu Ju had half a million troops. Why was he so degraded by a small Xi ‘ou?Was the general too stupid?Not really.There is no detailed record of tu Ju’s origin in historical books, so we are not sure about it. However, considering that he was able to take over the position of Wang Jian, a famous general, and lead half of the country’s troops in the southern expedition, we believe that even if he could not compete with Meng Tian, he would not be a incompetent person.So why did the invincible Qin army become old and defeated when it came to Lingnan?I think there are several reasons. First, Meng Tian’s northern expedition was to recover the homeland of The State of Zhao. The local border people hated the plunder of the Hungarians, so they would naturally stand on the side of the Qin army.For the Yue people there, the Qin army was the aggressor, so they had to resist at all costs.Therefore, the wars launched by Meng Tian and Wei Tu Ju were different in nature, and the results were quite different.Second: the local climate is different.Meng Tian’s expedition to the north was in the Hetao region, where the climatic conditions were not too different from those in Guanzhong, so the soldiers were more adaptable.The Baiyue region wei Tu Ju’s southern expedition was a savage land in the south. There, the climate was scorching, the terrain was low and wet, the mountains were complicated, the mists were extremely heavy, and snakes and insects were abundant.As soon as the Qin army reached its land, it did not agree with the soil and water.Or by pestilence, pestilence, pestilence and pestilence, they often died.In addition, the local Yue people, who were familiar with the terrain, constantly attacked the Qin army.As time passed, the morale of the Qin army became increasingly low, and a major defeat was inevitable.Third and most important, there was something wrong with the records in Huainan Zi. Tu Ju was no more than a “lieutenant”, far inferior to Meng Tian. How could he command an army of 500,000?Moreover, the Records of the Grand Historian does not mention the fact of these 500,000 troops, except that in the Annals of the First Emperor of qin, it is stated that the Qin government sent some law-breaking officials, refugees, merchants and some superfluous men, who at that time were equivalent to semi-slaves, to “take the land of Luliang for their use”.The so-called Luliang means flat land in the valley. In other words, the Qin army only occupied the flat land, and the mountains were still dominated by yue people.In addition, in the biography of Lord Zhufu of Pingjin, zhufu Yan mentioned that “Wei Tu Sui sent the soldiers of the building ship south to Baiyue”, and then “the Qin army suffered a great defeat”. He never mentioned that 500,000 troops and hundreds of thousands of people died in battle (Note 2).In short, Qin Shihuang should have only sent some criminals to develop lingnan. According to the Legalists, these were unstable elements of the empire and they would only cause chaos and waste food. It would be better to send them to Lingnan as cannon fodder, and to develop the backward areas, such as the Ling Canal to connect the Pearl River and Yangtze River systems.This system was carried forward by Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty and became the customary policy of the Chinese people to expand their territory.In fact, the colonial history of Europeans can also provide many similar examples. In this respect, China and foreign countries can be regarded as “east sea, West Sea, empathy”.In short, Qin Shi Huang finally took over baiyue and divided it into guilin (about today’s Guangxi Province), Xiangjun (about today’s north-central Vietnam) and Nanhai (about today’s Guangdong Province).At this point, the Territory of the Qin Empire extends to the sea in the east, quicksand in the west, the Five Ridges in the south and the Summer in the north, with a total land area of more than 3.47 million square kilometers, larger than the Alexander Empire that spanned Europe, Asia and Africa in the last century.It was then the largest country in the world.Unfortunately, the western Han dynasty, which conquered the deer of The Qin Dynasty, was very weak in the early years. Its territory was reduced to 2.14 million square kilometers at one time.Of course, in order to conquer Baiyue, after all, the empire paid a very painful price, which directly accelerated the pace of the fall of Qin.If sending Meng Tian to repair the Great Wall and build a straight path was necessary for the safety and development of the empire, then the conquest of Baiyue was definitely the biggest mistake made by Qin Shihuang in his life.First: conquer 100 yue is self-harm type from loss strength.In order to rule and develop the newly conquered Baiyue region, the imperial hundreds of thousands of immigrant troops were all stationed in xiangjun, Guilin Jun and Nanhai Jun.However, in these areas, the level of agriculture was still in the primitive age of slash-and-burn farming. The development cost was too high, and the maintenance of inland blood transfusion was required, which directly led to the decline of the supply level of the Qin Army and the multiplication of pressure in the interior.According to Wu Wu, a subordinate of Liu An, the king of Huainan, in Records of the Grand Historian, zhao Tuo, who was in Longchuan of The Qin Dynasty, asked Qin Shi Huang for 30,000 inland women in order to find a new home for the soldiers who emigrated, and the result was that Qin Shi Huang approved 15,000 women at a 50% discount.In short, lingnan garrison, like taotie, constantly gobbling up all kinds of resources, population, and even the empire itself.As a militaristic beast, Qin’s basic living method is to nourish himself by absorbing resources from others.And thereby dissipate any domestic energy that might lead to rebellion against the imperial court.In the Book of Shang, The People said: “The country is strong but does not fight, and the poison is transported into the country.He added, “If you can live, you can’t kill. The country you attack will be cut down.”The legalists believed that if the state wanted to maintain order, it must continuously devote its people’s strength to war, which can produce (save) and kill (consume), so as to “import poison to the outside”, transform internal contradictions into external contradictions, and then annex the whole world. This was the basic development logic of the Qin Empire.But after the world is unified, there is no other for to absorb, or, absorb the cost is too big, not only no profit, but to the outside blood transfusion to the Great Wall lingnan, so the empire can only absorb inward, damage the li people to fat the court.As a result, the people were no longer able to obtain military honours and titles, but also suffered from corvee labor, not to mention the people of the six states, even the old Qin people could not bear it.Therefore, once the world was in chaos, qin officials and qin troops fled in large numbers, or even rebelled, resulting in the immediate disintegration of the empire.After the uprising of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, his department sent military officials north to cross the Yellow River and mobilized tens of thousands of heroes in a word to rebel. He said: “The Qin Dynasty has been robbing the world for decades by abusing and torturing the state.North of the Great Wall of the war, south of the five Ridges of the garrison, outside and inside the turmoil, the people put down.Want of wealth, want of people.The county killed its cheng, the county killed its guard officer.”That’s right.In other words, instead of stopping its war economy, which had lasted for more than a hundred years, qin unified the country. Instead, it revved up its huge war machine to acquire land that was unprofitable in the short term, which eventually made it a true “self-conquering state”, overspent and depleted.Second, the conquest of Baiyue was one of the worst deals of qin shi Huang’s life — an army of immigrants who wasted a great deal of the empire’s money and food, but got nothing back.After the great chaos of the day, the 300 thousand troops in the north, there is direct traffic, and later can also kill to the land of Yan Zhao to share the pressure of Xianyang.However, not a single soldier of the southern emigrant army came to qin’s rescue. At the same time, nanhai Lieutenant Ren Xiao, the commander of the Southern Army at that time, fell ill and died. Longchuan, his designated successor, ordered Zhao Tuo to execute all the qin officers in each county.Third, conquering Baiyue was not a priority.The Xiongnu had great potential, and they occupied the Hetao region, the lifeblood of the empire, so they had to be driven out, not allowed to grow quietly.However, why is the hundred more so anxious to settle it?Since ancient times, Baiyue has never been a threat to the Chinese dynasty, because it is known as Baiyue, there are many natural tribes, and do not belong to each other, scattered sand, it can not threaten the central Plains regime, so chu at the most powerful time, only to develop zhejiang and Hunan region, and did not go south to fight.The Han dynasty also rested its strength for nearly a hundred years, until the emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty was at his most powerful and completely subdued baiyue in 109 BC.Why should the Emperor be in such a hurry?Food must be eaten at a time, battles must be fought for generations, everything must be balanced.The Great Wall and the straight road had already cost a lot of national power, people and money, and the empire needed at least a few decades to rest and multiply its population and resources before it could continue to expand its territory.Therefore, the most correct way for Qin Shi Huang to do is to leave the conquest of Baiyue to his descendants. But he insisted on finishing everything in his own lifetime. Would this not cause trouble?Some things are not can’t do, but not the time to do, do not have to pay the price.The biggest shortcoming of Qin Shihuang was that he was too ambitious to achieve great achievements. He was not afraid of trying to kill himself.Alas, sometimes people too aggressive is not good ah, to know oneself, to know contentment is happiness, to pursue but not importunate, this is the real good attitude of life.The so-called too much of a good thing, too much of a bad thing, is such a truth.In short, Qin Shi Huang should bear a great deal of responsibility for the fall of Qin, but he did many great things for China that were never seen before, almost more than most emperors and ministers combined for the next two thousand years.Of course, these great achievements, are built on countless blood and tears of bones and the masses of people on the grave disaster.However, the Qin people, full of pioneering and enterprising spirit, created a unique and great civilization, and they left countless valuable legacies for our descendants, which will be remembered by history forever.So Sima Qian also said: “Qin took the world more violent, but the world changes, success!”Note 1: This method was called “relegating”, and consisted of “jia Ren, those who were not upright in dealing with warders, zong Chang, an exile, a resident, a city citizen, a parent (grandparent) or a parent who was a city citizen”. Therefore, it was also called “the seven subjects of exile” in The Han dynasty.Among them were officials who broke the law, fugitives, merchants who became rich and their descendants (destroying the monopoly of land and wealth held by the high nobles). The rulers of the Qin system believed that these people harmed the state’s tax revenue and ruling order, and that their movement around the country (without land) was not conducive to control, so they needed to be severely punished.As for husbands, they are also hit hard because they increase the size of their families by blocking the country’s tax revenue and the atomization of society.It also recorded a law that forbade the granting of titles, fields and houses to redundant husbands, and forbade their descendants from entering the official ranks for three generations. Moreover, after being marked as redundant husbands in the household register for seven generations, they first levies corvee.In addition, after entering the army, the useless men not only received less pay (only one third of the food, but no meat to eat), but also had priority as cannon fodder, filling the moat at the front of the siege.Note 2: The reason why Huainan Zi exaggerates is that its chief editor, Liu An, the king of Huainan, advocated the ways of huang and Lao, advocated rest and inaction, and wrote a letter opposing Emperor Wudi of han dynasty to send troops to fight against Min and Yue.Note 3: Zhao Tuo was a native of Zhadizhending, also known as Zhao, or a descendant of the royal family of the state of Zhao at that time. He did not save The State of Qin and became the king of the state of Zhao.